Early Years of Finnish Electronic Music


All Early FinnScene entries @ pHinnWeb's Tumblr blog

Pekka Gronow ja M. A. Numminen tekivät merkittävän kokeilun vuonna 1966 – Eteenpäin! oli ensimmäinen suomalainen julkaisija, joka avasi kanavan suomalaiselle undergroundille (Helsingin Sanomat, 31 December 2016)

Yleisradion kokeilustudiossa syntyi nykymusiikkia koneilla (Early Finnish Electronic Music @ YLE, December 2016)


Elektronimusiikki alkoi surista YLE:ssä jo 1950-luvulla (Early Finnish Electronic Music @ YLE, May 2015) Sähkömetsä - Videotaiteen ja kokeellisen elokuvan historiaa Suomessa 1933-1998, a book on the history of video art and experimental cinema in Finland, published in April 2007.

Psychedelic Phinland - Finnish Hippie & Underground 
Music 1967-1974

  • Out 15 November 2006: Psychedelic Phinland - Finnish Hippie & Underground Music 1967-1974 (2-CD, Love Music/Siboney).

    Images from "SHH! Finnish Underground" exhibition

    Maan alla - undergroundia Suomessa @ YLE - Elävä arkisto

    More Arctic 
Hysteria / Son of Arctic Hysteria

  • Out in November 2006: Hot Igloo releases the Time Ride (HI-008) album by Finnish electronic music pioneer Jukka Ruohomäki.

  • Out in November 2005: More Arctic Hysteria / Son of Arctic Hysteria (2-CD, Love Music/Siboney).

  • Aika & Aine, a DVD compilation of Mika Taanila's short films and documentaries (featuring among all the Erkki Kurenniemi documentary The Future Is Not What It Used To Be) out on Reel 23 in 2005.
  • J.O. Mallander retrospective compilation out on Anoema Recordings in 2004...
  • Madam I'm Adam, a retrospective 2-CD of Pekka Airaksinen, now out on Love Records. See the tracklist here.
  • Popcorn and Politics - Finnish Pop 60s & 70s Pop artists @ Kiasma
  • The Future Is Not What It Used To Be, Mika Taanila's documentary on Erkki Kurenniemi.

    This text is based around the liner notes to the compilation tape Pertti Hakala, a record collector specialised in the 60's and 70's progressive and experimental music, has kindly provided, and which may give a bit of insight to the early pioneers of Finnish avantgarde electronic music and their ground-breaking recordings; many of them very rare now and as yet to be re-released in any form. See also the separate discography. Also, if you have any more info on the artists and records featured here, please, let me know.


    The first electronic composition in Finland, the experimental radio play Uljas uusi maailma (based on Aldous Huxley's Brave New World), was written by Martti Vuorenjuuri in 1959, and was followed by Bengt Johansson's Kolme elektronista harjoitelmaa ("Three Electronic Studies") in 1960 for Finnish Broadcasting Company Yleisradio, YLE. Also Finnish composers Erkki Salmenhaara and Henrik Otto Donner experimented with electronic music.

    Yleisradio's Musica Nova concerts were visited by such important new music composers as Karlheinz Stockhausen, Luigi Nono, John Cage, Luciano Berio, Penderecki and Oliver Messiaen. As early as 1967, Musica Nova presented for Finnish audiences computer music and its various possibilities.

    As everywhere else in the world, also in Finland electronic music and avantgarde art were closely connected. In 1963 the Americans Ken Dewey and Terry Riley were organising a performance or happening for Helsinki Street Piece, with composer Henrik Otto Donner and some local students. Donner also had in February 1968 his own happening called Sähköshokki-ilta ("Electric Shock Evening"), where he performed at Helsinki's Amos Andersson Gallery his electronic pieces in conjunction with the exhibition of Eino Ruutsalo's kinetic art and short films.

    Jyväskylä Summer festivals were instrumental in the development of Finnish avantgarde and underground in the 1960s, and were visited by such international modern composers as Nono, Ligeti and Stockhausen. The Finnish underground legend, M.A. Numminen shocked in 1966 the establishment in Jyväskylä, when he performed his songs which lyrics had been taken from marital guides and legislative texts concerning the distribution of pornography. The multi-talented Numminen would also dabble with electronic music, and participated in the creation of Sähkökvartetti synthesizer with the composer, engineer and visionary Erkki Kurenniemi.

    1967 saw the birth of the notorious Helsinki ensemble The Sperm, led by Mattijuhani Koponen and Pekka Airaksinen and with such members as J.O. Mallander and Markus Heikkerö. Airaksinen had previously written some experimental pieces with the equipment provided and built by Erkki Kurenniemi for The University of Helsinki Electronic Music Studio (where also composers Henrik Otto Donner and Erkki Salmenhaara had been working).

    The Sperm's performances concentrated, alongside music, on breaking sexual taboos, and Mattijuhani Koponen eventually had to spend some time at a correctional facility (the fuss was all about Koponen's alleged public copulation with an anonymous woman while lying on a grand piano at a performance), since this sort of avantgardism seemed to be too much for the establishment of time.

    In the 1970s also such composers continued on the field of Finnish electronic music as Osmo Lindeman, Jarmo Sermilä, Otto Romanowski (who had also his Neum trio with Esa Kotilainen and Ilkka Niemeläinen), Jukka Ruohomäki (once Erkki Kurenniemi's assistant), Paavo Heininen, Antero Honkanen, Esa Kotilainen and Herman Rechberger.

    Erkki KurenniemiERKKI KURENNIEMI: Dance of the Antropoids (Excerpt) 1.09

    One of the undeniable pioneers of Finnish electronic music is Erkki Kurenniemi (b. 1941), who founded The University of Helsinki Electronic Music Studio in the early 1960's. Kurenniemi built his own series of synthesizers, named as DIMI, which are nowadays mostly possessed by Swedish collector and electronic musician Ralph Lundsten, and published some of his experimental compositions like 'Dance of the Antropoids'. Alongside such Finnish pioneers as Eino Ruutsalo (for whose short films Kurenniemi composed music), Kurenniemi also did some early work on the field of Finnish media art and contributed to Finnish video art and happenings. These days Kurenniemi works as an independent researcher, specialising in such subjects as artificial intelligence.

    The full-length version of this composition can be found on the Love Records album Perspectives '68 - Music From Finland and also the 1998 collection Love Proge 2. This excerpt of 'Dance of the Antropoids' comes from the LP Tombstone Valentine by Finnish progressive rock band Wigwam. [A new Erkki Kurenniemi page - under construction] + [Discography information here] [An article on Erkki Kurenniemi in Finnish.] [Another article.] [Erkki Kurenniemi article @ Helsingin Sanomat (in Finnish)] See also: M.A. Numminen.

    SPERM: Korvapoliklinikka Hesperia ('The Ear Clinic Hesperia')
    1970 Sperm: 'Shh!'

    From the band's only LP Shh! which also includes the excellent 'Heinäsirkat' ('Locusts'). Sperm was the biggest name of Helsinki underground, having in its line-up among all Mattijuhani Koponen, P.Y. Hiltunen, Antero Helander, J.O. Mallander, Markus Heikkerö and the musical primus motor Pekka Airaksinen. The group arranged happenings, performances and concerts (with appropriate psychedelic light shows); and managed to cause some debate and public outrage at the time in Finland. Sperm created their experimental compositions using only various guitar effects and tape manipulations; the results of which could these days be called "ambient noise". This track combines some "samples" to the experimentation with guitar feedback, effects, etc., where an operator of a taxi cab centre recites in a monotonous voice addresses to the cars where to pick up their customers.

    These days the original album is a high-priced collector's item, though there is supposed to be in circulation also a CD-R version available from Pekka Airaksinen's own Dharmakeskus Publications.

    SPERM: Staffstaff

    From the rare one-sided 7" EP 3rd Erection, which was Sperm's first recording. The same people published in 1972 another release at their own expense, as Samsa Trio, but it was not actual electronic music either. [Discography information here] [The Sperm @ pHinnWeb Blog] [The Sperm @ Suomalaisen rockin tietosanakirja - in Finnish] [The Sperm @ Hymy 5/1968 - in Finnish]

    PEKKA AIRAKSINEN: Music For The Play Sisyfos Pt. 3 - Fos 2

    From One Point Music, the first solo album of Pekka Airaksinen, the musical "soul" of Sperm/Samsa Trio, which was also released on the band's own O Records label. The back sleeve mentions as influences among all such names as Stockhausen, König, Xenakis, Riley and Cage(!). [Pekka Airaksinen @ Wikipedia] [Pekka Airaksinen @ pHinnWeb Blog] [Discography @ Rockdata]


    The musical 'comeback' of Airaksinen from '84 -- again on the O label. The name of record, Buddhas Of Golden Light refers to Eastern influences. Alongside Airaksinen, on the record Antero Helander plays saxophone and the drums are "played" by Roland (i.e. drum machine).

 Numminen M. A. NUMMINEN JA SÄHKÖKVARTETTI: Kaukana väijyy ystäviä
    ('M.A. Numminen & The Electric Quartet: Far Away Lurk Some Friends')

    The Finnish underground legend M.A. Numminen (b. 1940) & co. on their self-made electronic gadgets, courtesy of Erkki Kurenniemi. Numminen gave the original concept and Kurenniemi built Sähkökvartetti ("Electric Quartet"), which was a complex multi-part synthesizer for various players. M.A. Numminen wreaked havoc in a youth festival in Sofia, Bulgaria, where he performed with Sähkökvartetti and a bunch of friends their experimental and very artistic composition 'Kaukana väijyy ystäviä' ("Far Away Lurk Friends"), after which the combo was banned from festival.

    M.A. Numminen had already shocked the establishment in Jyväskylä Summer festival 1966, when he performed his songs which lyrics had been taken from guides to newly-married couples and legislative texts concerning the distribution of pornography. The multitalent Numminen was heavily into jazz and avantgarde culture and music - including electronic sounds - and his game was to provoke bourgeoisie as much as he ever could: Numminen's idiosyncratic voice (imagine a sheep trying to sing whining falsetto and out of tune) became soon familiar in Finland, as he performed anything from traditional tangos and schlagers to Schubert's lieds to songs which lyrics had been taken from Wittgenstein's Tractatus to children's songs. M.A. Numminen also took part to Suomen Talvisota 1939-1940 ('Finnish Winter War') project which epitomized Finnish underground rock scene. These days an established Finnish institution, with a fame going far beyond cult reputation, Numminen continued his electronic projects with the Pet Shop Boys-styled album "M.A. Numminen Goes Tech-No" some years ago, but that's maybe another story.

    [Discography information here] [The Official M.A. Numminen Site] [M.A. Numminen @ Wikipedia] M.A. Numminen interview in English.] [M.A. Numminen interview in Finnish.] [M.A. Numminen interview in Swedish.]

    PEKKA STRENG: Olen väsynyt ('I'm Tired')

    Maybe not so electronic, but a fine example of Finnish psychedelia from the LP Magneettimiehen kuolema ('The Death of Magnet Man') by Pekka Streng who died of cancer in 1975 after having recorded only two albums.

    The subjects of Streng's music, with its tender folk leanings, concentrate on fairy tales, Eastern mysticism and spiritualism, social criticism and so on, with a strong humanist emphasis. On his first album, Streng was backed by the musicians of the Finnish prog-rock band Tasavallan Presidentti, and the second - more lavish in its orchestration - had on it some of the best jazz and rock musicians in Finland. Even though his recorded output was only two full-length albums (he was planning material for the third one at the time of his death) and some radio appearances, Pekka Streng remains an influential cult artist even decades after his early demise. (Trivia: Pekka Streng appears as one of the extras in the 1969 science fiction film, Ruusujen aika.) Sähkö Recordings' sublabel Jazzpuu re-released in 2001 his 'Puutarhassa' ("In The Garden") as a 12".

    [Pekka Streng - a tribute site in Finnish] [Pekka Streng @ pHinnWeb Blog]

    Olliver Hawk a.k.a. Olavi Hakasalo O.E. HAKASALO: Katkelma 'biisistä' 'Ohjaaminen hypnoottiseen olotilaan'
    ('An excerpt from the 'song' 'Guidance to the Hypnotic State of Mind'')
    Year: ?

    Straying even further from the subject, but this fine hypnosis record of Olavi Hakasalo a.k.a. Olliver Hawk, the renowned Finnish hypnotist, works as an approriate filler on this collection.

    ANTERO HONKANEN: Tapporaha ('Blood Money')

    From the LP Reidarin sähköiset kuvat - Åke Anderssonin ja Antero Honkasen elektronimusiikkia ('Reidar's Electric Images - The Electronic Music by Åke Andersson and Antero Honkanen') (Love Records).

    ESA KOTILAINEN: Ilmassa - a) Syventyminen, b) Olotila, c) Keveyden portaat
    ('In The Air - a) Concentration, b) A State of Being, c) The Stairs of Lightness')

    Preceding the former release, also published by the seminal Love Records label, apparently influenced by Klaus Schulze/Tangerine Dream. The name of the record is Ajatuslapsi ('Thought Child'). Esa Kotilainen has among all in his collection the only mellotron in Finland. Kotilainen also purchased in February 1974 from Germany the first Minimoog synthesizer in Finland. During this era he was playing gigs on the ferry called Finnhansa which sailed between Helsinki and Travemünde, and paid for the instrument 6.100 Finnish marks: the price of a small car those days. The first gig with Kotilainen's Minimoog was creating sound effects for the soundtrack of Spede Pasanen's film comedy Viu-hah-hah-taja (1974), and the first music recording was obviously for the solo album Robson of Frank Robson. Kotilainen received with his Minimoog lots of work offers to create music and sound effects for TV commercials, and the instrument was used on the albums of Tasavallan Presidentti, Hector, Jukka Tolonen and Wigwam. Esa Kotilainen has been a member of Wigwam and Neum. [Discography information here.] [Esa Kotilainen @ Wikipedia (in Finnish)] [Interview in Finnish.]


    A sample from the collection released on Fennica Nova label, with Osmo Lindeman, Jarmo Sermilä, Herman Rechberger, Otto Romanowski, Paavo Heininen and Antero Honkanen. Jukka Ruohomäki (b. 1947) is one of the Finnish pioneers on the electronic field. He started working in 1970 in the Electronic Music Studio at Helsinki University's Department of Musicology as an assistant of Erkki Kurenniemi and he made independent compositions as well as music for ballet, theatre, radio plays and films. He also provided synthesizer sounds for the albums of such pop musicians as Pekka Streng and Hector. In the 1980s Ruohomäki was mainly involved with computer graphics but recently he has started to compose music again.

    Ruohomäki is supposedly the first one to bring the sophisticated VCS3 synthesizer (a.k.a. "Putney", image above) to Finland! This instrument was then used on some seminal Finnish rock albums; among them Herra Mirandos ("Mister Mirandos") by Hector (where also Kurenniemi's DIMI was heard) and Being by Wigwam -- both released in 1973, thus becoming a crucial year in the history of Finnish 'synth pop'! (Ruohomäki probably has only borrowed Putney to Wigwam, or consulted the band about the instrument's connections, not playing himself there, though the album credits him as "Putney assistant".)

    These days Ruohomäki teaches electronic music at Oulu Conservatory. He finally released his debut album proper called Time Ride (HI-008, Hot Igloo) in November 2006. [Jukka Ruohomäki @ Musiikin ja säveltäjien Oulu] [Jukka Ruohomäki @ Not a Record Label] [Jukka Ruohomäki @ gaudeamus.nl] [Interview in Finnish @ Karjalainen] [Interview in Finnish @ Helsingin Sanomat]

    Finally, some Finnish synth pop:

    HOT SOX: Die Arbeit

    Einstein A
Go Go Futurism was the hot thing of the early 80's. In 1981 the Uusi Laulu ("New Chant") magazine organised its first "narcissistic" futurist disco at Klippan, Helsinki. Restaurant Kaisaniemi had its Einstein A Go Go club where the male participants put on a make-up in the men's room, and the singer Markku Arokanto was seen swimming and skiing on the dance floor. In Finland the synthetic Futurist/New Romantic pop was simply called "futu", and during the first two or three years of the 80's it was the hottest thing among the late-teens/early-20's Helsinki trend slaves, who traditionally want to be "where it's at".

    This year the 'Q' label of Discophon released the Kraftwerk/Bowie influenced LP Das Kapital by Hot Sox and the single 'Plastic Twist' (with a cover of 'Purple Haze' as B-side!); the band featuring also Tauno Railo, the future bass player for Piirpauke et al. The name Hot Sox came from the band claiming that "our music is so hot that it will make your socks heat up!". Despite these claims, the reception of group was only lukewarm, and they disbanded soon after. [Discography information here.]

    StressiSTRESSI: Go-Go "Mod"

    From the same year a sample of a "stylish" futu band's music. Stressi (picture left) hailed originally from Imatra, Finland, and were successful at the Finnish Rock Championships, subsequently releasing a couple of singles ('Tatsia', 'Labyrintti', 'Ma Joeur') and an eponymous LP ('81). The charmingly corny lyrics for the band were provided by one Jaana Rinne, who later became known for her collaboration with the retro-pop act Clifters. [Discography information here.]

    CINEMA: Videohäät ('Video Wedding')

    Cinema's roots were in the 70's and a band called Gabriel in Kuortane, Finland, from which the apparent prog rock and Genesis influences derived. Possibly one of the first production works of T.T. Oksala, one of the most proficient rock producers in Finland. A stylish record which, according to some rumours, was re-released a couple of years ago by the band's members...

    ARGON: San Salvador

    Kone Kertoo ('The Machine Tells') was released in the same year and on the same label as the LP by Stressi. Obviously the belief in the future of futurism(!) was strong...



    ORGAN: For Next

    Organ, maybe the pivotal Finnish synth act, was the answer of Poko Records and Mikko Saarela to the futu craze. Organ was the outcome of the creative minds of Saarela (formerly of the popular Finnish punk band Eppu Normaali) and the synthetic Argon duo -- who had already released one album, Kone kertoo -- joined together. Organ's most famous song was 'Kärpästen juhla' ("The Feast of Flies") with its anti-war theme, mocking the clichés of some traditional Finnish patriotic hymns -- Mikko Saarela's witty, humorous lyrics held some social concern in them, dealing with the rights of test animals, helping the third world countries, bureaucracy and so on, in the best punk tradition. There is one Organ album, Nekrofiilis (POKO PÄLP 33, 1982), and some singles; 'Kundi meikkaa' ("A Guy Makes Up") being the best known of them.
    [Argon & Organ discography information here.]

    Bonus Beats

    J.O. MALLANDER: 1962

    The visual artist, art critic and a member of Sperm, J.O. Mallander (b. 1944), recorded this legendary single, 'Extended Play' (a.k.a. 'Kekkonen'), which consists of a continous loop from the public counting of votes of the 1956 Finnish Presidential election, when Urho Kaleva Kekkonen was chosen, and was to be the longest-running (1956-81) Finnish President: "Kekkonen, Kekkonen, Kekkonen... Kekkonen, Kekkonen, Kekkonen" (and ad infinitum). A real rarity and collector's item.

    Mallander was also instrumental in the Elonkorjaajat ("Harvesters") group who banded together in 1970 through their affiliation with Helsinki's Cheap Thrills Gallery, run by J.O. Mallander. Elonkorjaajat sought an alternative to current art movements, and were interested in various subjects from Eastern philosophy (Mallander himself turned to Buddhism) to organic food.

    [J.O. Mallander @ Suomen Kuvataiteilijat] [Discography information here.]

    DANNY: Maantieltä taloon ('From The Dirt Road To The House')

    Danny, a.k.a. Ilkka Lipsanen, has been one of the most popular artists in Finnish light music since the mid-1960s. This Finnish version of Chicory Tip's hit single 'Son Of My Father' (produced by Giorgio Moroder) could be called one the earliest "synthpop" tracks in Finland; a basic happy-go-lucky pop song spiced with a buzzing analogue synthesizer sound, which was the latest novelty those days. The memorable intro of this track became later known as the theme music of Finnish TV's news commentary show A-Studio. [Danny Web Site]

    WIGWAM: Bless Your Lucky Stars

    Wigwam was a Finnish progressive rock band, who gained some success even internationally. The centre figure of Wigwam was the British expatriate Jim Pembroke, who had played and written songs in the 60's for Blues Section, one of those rare acts representing Finnish psychedelia. This synth-heavy track comes from Wigwam's 1975 album Nuclear Nightclub; the vocals are filtered through some vocoder-like effects, and without the excessive soloing this one might well have been from the later era of New Wave/synthpop. It is no surprise then that Kinetic (a.k.a. Romantic Vision), a Finnish neo-synthpop band of the late 1990's, used to play their version of this song as part of their gigs. [Wigwam Web Site by Mikko Meriläinen]

    ('Desert's Machine and Motor')

    The project of Finnish underground punk legend Läjä Äijälä (of Terveet Kädet fame); adopting rare British Wasp vintage synth, these electronic noodlings preceded the sparse soundscapes of Pan Sonic and Mika Vainio some fifteen years. Äijälä continued producing his rockabilly/Suicide-inspired music with such projects as The Billy Boys and The Leo Bulgariloves. [More info here.]

    [Discography information here]

    JIMI SUMÉN: The Model

    Internationally probably the best known Finnish synth pop musician was Jimi Sumén from Lappeenranta. Sumén started as a Hendrix-styled virtuoso guitarist, but then moved to a totally different kind of musical territory, influenced by Bowie and Japan, releasing some solo albums. 'The Model' is not a cover of the Kraftwerk song, but Sumén's original composition; 'Home Movies' (also '81) by Sumén became known as one of the first Finnish music videos. Jimi Sumén was then recruited by a well-known British synth band Classix Nouveaux, and has later on concentrated on a career of record producer for several Finnish rock acts. [Discography info here.]

    GENERAL NJASSA AND HIS LOST DIVISION: I'm Young, Beautiful And Natural

    General Njassa, a.k.a. Jyrki Jantunen, was (and is) a popular Helsinki DJ, best known from the Radio City and Radio Helsinki stations and TV's Levyraati, the Finnish version of Juke Box Jury. In 1983 Njassa donated to the unsuspecting world 'I'm Young, Beautiful And Natural', a quite orthodox-sounding Finnish take on hip hop electro, made popular in the early 80's New York by Afrika Bambaataa, Arthur Baker et al. This track appeared on the compilation The Art of Breeding, with such artists as Jimi Sumén, Hefty Load and Twiggy Oliver. Lyrically the song is just a piss-take -- a little "lost" gem, anyway. The track was also published as a 7" in France on Barclay. A French release was also General Njassa's mini-LP Special, which appeared in 1986, with an extended remix of this song, but despite all efforts, Njassa's recording career (he also did a brief spell as a vocalist of cultish goth-rock band Musta Paraati) was short. See also: Pin Ups. [Discography information here.]

    BELABORIS: Rakkauden jälkeen ('After Love')

    A synthetic girl band Belaboris was gathered together by Miettinen, a now-legendary Finnish punk journalist, producer and so on. Miettinen probably planned a Spice Girls-type of success for his beautiful protegés, despite which the career of group was short-lived. Belaboris left behind them a couple of singles, the cover version of the 60's pop favourite Carola's 'Rakkauden jälkeen' probably the best known. [Discography information here.]

    DINGO: Levoton Tuhkimo ('Restless Cinderella')

    There are also some lesser-known bands of this era, like Geisha, but Finland never created a great amount of synth pop groups, which genre remains a minor footnote in the history of Finnish pop, ever so rock-dominated. "The Golden Age" of futu and Finnish synth pop lasted maybe until 1984, when the trend started to fade, and a band from Pori called Dingo -- who were to cause a hysteria among Finnish teenage girls often compared to Beatlemania -- released their first album, including the synth-driven single 'Levoton Tuhkimo', which could well be called the swansong of Finnish synth pop. [Dingo Web Site]


    The dream was not over yet, though: the synthetic experimentations were to continue in Finnish pop music. After this were to come the industrial funk of Jimi Tenor and His Shamans (before Jimi found easy listening in the early 90's and became a world star), the synth/EBM groups like Advanced Art and Neuroactive and the whole Cyberware label roster; loads of internationally-acclaimed techno acts and record labels like Pan(a)sonic, Mono Junk and Sähkö Recordings, but more info about them elsewhere on this site.

    M.A. Numminen with 
singing machine

    M.A. Numminen with the "singing machine" designed by Erkki Kurenniemi in 1964

    Pekka Streng

    Pekka Streng with son Joonia

    Related articles at pHinnWeb's Blog:

  • Sähkömetsä - Videotaiteen ja kokeellisen elokuvan historiaa Suomessa 1933-1998 [5 May 2007]

  • Video clips: Sähkökvartetti & Those Lovely Hulahands [2 April 2007]

  • YLE Elävä Arkisto videoclips

    All Early FinnScene entries & news @ pHinnWeb's new blog

    Further reading:

    [pHinnWeb can't guarantee the continuing validity of these links.]

    Arctic History by Jukka Lindfors

    The First Finnish Electronic Compositions by Petri Kuljuntausta

    Finnish Contemporary Art: The 1970s

    Maanalaista menoa! Otteita suomalaisen undergroundin historiasta

    Musiikin avantgarde 1960-luvulla

    Poll: All-Time Best Finnish Record Covers

    Psychedelic Rock & Garage @ pHinnWeb: Finland

    Jorma Elovaara and Vesimiehen Aika: The Finnish Age of Aquarius

    Finnish Institute of Recorded Sound

    hertsi.com - with discography of Finnish jazz in the 1970s

    FinnArctic [a blog sadly not in existence any more]

    Seppo Bruun, Jukka Lindfors, Santtu Luoto & Markku Salo
    Jee jee jee -- suomalaisen rockin historia ("Yeah Yeah Yeah -- The History of Finnish Rock")
    1998 WSOY, Porvoo

    Matti Komulainen & Petri Leppänen
    U:n aurinko nousi lännestä - Turkulaisen undergroundin historia
    2009 Sammakko, Turku (ISBN 978-952-483-096-6)

    [A related article in Finnish @ Rytmi 1/2004]

    Petri Kuljuntausta
    ON/OFF - Eetteriäänistä sähkömusiikkiin
    2002 Like Kustannus, Helsinki (ISBN 951-578-934-6)

    Jukka Lindfors (ed.)
    Pakko vatkaa. Kirjoituksia popmusiikista
    2006 WSOY, Helsinki (ISBN 9789510320372)

    Jukka Lindfors & Markku Salo
    Ensimmäinen aalto: Helsingin Underground 1967-1970 ("The First Wave: Helsinki Underground 1967-1970")
    1988 Odessa, Helsinki (ISBN 951-9178-35-X)

    M.A. Numminen
    Helsinkiin. Opiskelija Juho Niityn sivistyshankkeet 1960-1964.
    1999 Schildts, Helsinki (ISBN 951-50-1054-3)

    Miska Rantanen
    Love Records 1966-1979.
    2005 Schildts, Helsinki (ISBN 951-50-1528-6)

    Jukka Ruohomäki
    Pioneers and Explorers. Electronic music in Finland.
    Finnish Music Quarterly (FMQ) 3/1998, 28-35

    Kalev Tiits
    Erkki Kurenniemi -- Avantgarden innovaattori ("Erkki Kurenniemi - The Innovator of Avantgarde")
    Musiikkitiede 2/1990

    Kalev Tiits
    Voluntääriassistentti Erkki Kurenniemi ja elektronimusiikin alku yliopistolla.
    Pro gradu, Helsingin yliopisto, musiikkitieteen laitos, 1990

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    Copyright © (for the original text) Pertti Hakala 1996. Translation, additions, Bonus Beats, etc. by pHinn 1996-2017.